Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. However, in the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen. In the years after Nietzsche's death in , his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways.
He had some following among left-wing Germans in the s; in — German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States. Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in , The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche , and in a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States. Writer on music Donald Mitchell notes that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings.
Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life , based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , while Richard Strauss who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book , was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography". Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche, along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky, as one of his primary influences.
Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book. By World War I , Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for both right-wing German militarism and leftist politics. Gordon  and Martin Buber , who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. Adorno  can be seen in the popular Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham.
Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany. Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work.
It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did his reading of him may not have been extensive.
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Mussolini ,   Charles de Gaulle  and Huey P. Newton  read Nietzsche. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest," and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand. A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R. Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger , who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov , who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy".
Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Nietzsche disambiguation. German philosopher. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche.
University of Bonn Leipzig University. Main article: Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Apollonian and Dionysian. Main article: Perspectivism. Main article: Master—slave morality. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main articles: God is dead and Nihilism. Main article: Will to power. Main article: Eternal return. Main article: Library of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Main article: Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography. See also: List of works about Friedrich Nietzsche. Philosophy portal Atheism portal Germany portal Biography portal. Zalta, Edward N. Oxford University Press. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 9 April University of Illinois Press. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. A History of Western Philosophy.
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New York: Simon and Schuster. Summer "Friedrich Nietzsche". Zalta ed. Retrieved 6 October Lanier 17 March Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Nietzsche's philosophical context: an intellectual biography , p. University of Illinois Press, Journal of Contemporary Religion , vol 27, no. Nietzsche , Twilight of the Idols. Hollingdale online version. A strict example of a cause-and-effect mismatch, with regard to the God-creator as the cause and our concepts as the effects, is perhaps not fully stressed in this fragment, but the more explicit it is stressed in the same book, chapter ""Reason" in philosophy", 4, as well as in The Antichrist 57, where real and imaginary origins are contrasted, and 62, where he calls Christianity 'a fatality'—'fatal' also meaning 'unavoidable' and in The Genealogy of Morals , books 1—3, among others.
The topic of " false origins" of ideas is also suggested in The Four Great Errors , 3, and precisely about morality in e. The Will to Power , tr.
Kaufmann, online text here. Gemes, J. Press, , pp. New Haven: Yale University Press. Friedrich Nietzsche: Herald of a New Era. Hazar Press. Wistrich eds. Princeton, N. Friedrich Nietzsche Winter ed. The Good European: Nietzsche's work sites in word and image. University of Chicago Press, Nietzsche: A Critical Life , p.
Oxford University Press, Yale University Press, Jensen, Helmut Heit eds. Archived from the original on 24 November History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences. Oxford University Press New York , Letter to Karl Von Gersdorff , June Note that some authors among them Deussen and Montinari mistakenly claim that Nietzsche became a Swiss citizen. Journal of Medical Biography. Nietzsche and the Transcendental Tradition. Shelley Frisch. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography , p. Plett - Schmidseder. Walter de Gruyter. Letter to Peter Gast. August Retrieved 27 November March The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche.
Cambridge University Press. The Nietzsche Channel. Retrieved 24 August Wilhelm, Bismarck und alle Antisemiten abgeschafft. December , pp. Hospital Medicine. The Legend of Nietzsche's Syphilis. Westport: Greenwood Press. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Mercury Poisoning: The Undiagnosed Epidemic. Volz , p. The Concise encyclopedia of western philosophy 3rd ed. London: Routledge. The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Wilder Publications. Friedrich Nietzsche. Transaction Publishers. Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 16 August Nietzsche's ring Herbarz Polski Kaspra Niesieckiego S.
Bobrowicza [ Polish armorial of Kasper Niesiecki S. Heraldic Family Bobrowicz, Lipsk herb Radwan t. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 17 August In , the Polish writer Bernhard Scharlitt in the spirit of Polish patriotism wrote an article about the Nietzsche family. In Herbarz Polski, a genealogy of Polish nobility, he had come across a note about a family named 'Nicki', who could be traced back to Radwan.
A member of this family named Gotard Nietzsche had left Poland for Prussia, and his descendants had eventually settled in Saxony around the year University Press , p. Charles Q. Nietzsche's Women: Beyond the Whip. Zarathustra's secret: the interior life of Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case". The Journal of Modern History. Young Nietzsche: Becoming a Genius. New York: The Free Press. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Philosophers Behaving Badly. London: Peter Owen. Grenke The Review of Politics. The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche".
Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. Nietzsche on Ethics and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 3 January Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. Ideas About Art. Archived from the original on 14 August Patterns of Culture. Foucault's Nietzschean Genealogy.
Nietzsche: Naturalism and Interpretation. From Hegel to Existentialism. Alasdair MacIntyre. Tradition in the ethics of Alasdair MacIntyre. From Shakespeare to existentialism. On the Genealogy of Morals. First essay, section Ecce Homo. Chapter on The Case of Wagner, section 2. Beyond Good and Evil. Section Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche , , pp. What Nietzsche Means. See F. The Journal of Nietzsche Studies. Hegel, Nietzsche, and Philosophy: Thinking Freedom. David Farrell Krell. New York: Harper and Row, New York: Vintage Books. Purdue University Press.
Retrieved 18 April The Portable Nietzsche. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Penguin. Nietzsche: Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Adrian Del Caro and Robert Pippin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nietzsche's Teaching. The Mask of Enlightenment. Archived from the original on 7 June International Studies in Philosophy. Philological Quarterly. Grzelczyk quotes B. Wahrig-Schmidt, "Irgendwie, jedenfalls physiologisch. Paris The Gay Science , Walter Kaufmann transl, p. Deleuze, Nietzsche and Philosophy transl. Hugh Tomlinson , , pp. Germanic Notes and Reviews. Books and Writers kirjasto. Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library.
Archived from the original on 26 December Nietzsche, Philosopher of the Perilous Perhaps. The Gist of Nietzsche. Boston, J. The First Moderns. Chicago: U Chicago Press. Archived from the original on 12 June Nietzsche:Imagery and thoughts. Dispatches from the Freud Wars. Germany as model and monster: Allusions in English fiction. The Double Man. Greenwood Press. Gustav Mahler: The Early Years. London Review of Books. Jack London's Racial Lives.
A Sun of the Son. Nietzsche and Islam. Archived from the original on 29 April The Cambridge Companion to Wallace Stevens. Archived from the original on 17 July Retrieved 22 December Nietzsche and Soviet Culture: Ally and Adversary. Thomas Mann's Death in Venice. Archived from the original on 23 January Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias.
Nietzsche and Zion. Cornell University Press. Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist. Eugene O'Neill:A Playwright's theatre. The Idea of Decline in Western History.
Friedrich Nietzsche - Wikipedia
The Mind of Adolf Hitler , p. But Hitler's reading and reflection were anything but academic, doubtless he did read much. However, as was noted in an earlier chapter, he made clear in My Struggle that reading for him had purely an instrumental purpose. He read not for knowledge or enlightenment, but for confirmation of his own preconceptions. Norton p. Gaddis, P. Gordon, E. May, J. Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, and Nietzsche. Philosophy in Literature. Archived from the original on 20 May Romanian Philosophical Culture, Globalization, and Education. Leo Strauss and Nietzsche.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Absurd in Literature. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. Retrieved 22 August Ritske Rensma". Depth Insights. Rodopi, Cate, Curtis Deleuze, Gilles . Nietzsche and Philosophy. Translated by Hugh Tomlinson. Athlone Press. Golomb, Jacob, ed. Nietzsche and Jewish culture. Heidegger, Martin. The Word of Nietzsche. Hollingdale, R. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy.
The Journal of Philosophy. Kaufmann, Walter Princeton University Press. Lampert, Laurence Roochnik, David Retrieving the Ancients. Russell, Bertrand Santayana, George Egotism in German Philosophy. Sedgwick, Peter R. Nietzsche: the key concepts. Routledge, Oxon, England: Routledge. Higgins, Kathleen What Nietzsche Really Said. Pious Nietzsche: Decadence and Dionysian Faith. Indiana University Press.
Breitschmid, Markus , Der bauende Geist. Friedrich Nietzsche und die Architektur. Brunger, Jeremy. Numero Cinq magazine August. Corriero, Emilio Carlo, Nietzsche oltre l'abisso. Die Philosophie des Nihilismus". Marburg: Tectum Verlag Nietzsche-Studien, December Gemes, Ken ; May, Simon, eds. Nietzsche on Freedom and Autonomy. Golan, Zev. Hunt, Lester In Hamowy, Ronald ed. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Huskinson, Lucy. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Volume 5, Stanford University Press. Ruehl, Martin 2 January The Independent. Retrieved 18 August Seung, T. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, Shapiro, Gary Alcyone: Nietzsche on Gifts, Noise, and Women. Tanner, Michael Lanham, MD: Lexington. Waite, Geoff.
Wicks, Robert. In Edward N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Fall ed. Young, Julian. Friedrich Nietzsche at Wikipedia's sister projects. Articles related to Friedrich Nietzsche. Continental philosophy. Theodor W. Category Index. Phenomenology philosophy Continental philosophy Transcendentalism German idealism Western Marxism Existentialist anarchism. Strawson R. Quine G. Axiology Cosmology Epistemology Feminist metaphysics Interpretations of quantum mechanics Meta- Ontology Philosophy of mind Philosophy of psychology Philosophy of self Philosophy of space and time Teleology Theoretical physics.
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Tutor Prof. The statute of truth and the irreducibility of collective works faith in the work of Friedrich Nietzsche, in Radical Experiences. Articles in peer-reviewed journals - At the Origins of Modern Geography. Un dictionnaire philosophique, Vrin, Paris Festschrift - Una gara in cui vincono tutti e nessuno. Un omaggio a Giuliano Campioni, P. Fornari, L. Lupo, C. Piazzesi ed.
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To be published - Interview to Heinz Wismann, Parler des langues. Memory: a space of aporia or inclusion? Submitted for peer-review. Helmut Heit. Un appuntamento mancato? Perspektiven ihrer Auseinandersetzung, October , Naumburg. Leopardi, Macerata. Werner Stegmaier.